The flexural strength, as well as the tensile strength, was seen to increase with fibre volume fractions for parallel fibre reinforcement. The beams strengthened with sisal fiber rods showed higher increase in ultimate load as compared with the beams strengthened with sisal fiber composites layers. The sisal is considered a plant of the tropics and subtropics season. The results for strength, stiffness and failure modes are discussed for the both strengthening configurations. Sisal fibers also produce clothes, slippers, spa products, lumbar sup… The results depicted that JFRP, CFRP and GFRP, strengthening improved the ultimate strength of the RC beams by 62.5%, 150% and 125%, respectively, with full wrapping technique and by 25%, 50% and 37.5%, respectively with the strip wrapping technique. Only the fibres remain. The test results showed that the addition of steel fibers has no clear effect on compressive strength, but its effect is significantly remarked on splitting tensile and flexural strength. This message was widely disseminated during the International Year of Natural Fibres in 2009 . The investigation on Quarry, maximum of 25mm was used to measure deflection at t, after 24 hours, and then specimens were cured in, compressive load to opposite edges. Widely used for both practical purposes and aesthetic, manila is a popular choice for everything from landscaping to industrial tool restoration. Sisal has a promising future not only because of the new uses of this fibre but also because of growing public awareness that natural fibres, like sisal, are environmentally friendly. Toughness was observed to increase considerably with fibre volume fractions in all cases except for chopped fibres reinforced samples tested in tension. The use of sisal natural fiber as reinforcement for gypsum parts using binder jetting additive manufacturing technique was proven to be possible in this study. Leaf juice is used in Northern Morocco as a wash for treating skin diseases. Unlike jute, sisal can’t be used in the fabric industry. Sisal Expected Yield. The present study is conducted to examine the effectiveness of sisal fiber in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. These methods of sisal propagation does not offer any potential genetic improvement in the plant. The uses of sisal Thanks to its strength and appearance, it is an extremely versatile fiber that is used in the most heterogeneous areas. Sisal is used commonly in the shipping industry for mooring small craft, lashing, and handling cargo. The increase in split tensile strength at 28 days is 24%, 56%, 80% and the initial cracking load in flexure is increased by 12.5%, 27.5% and 20% for 0.5%,1% and 1.5% fiber replacements compared to conventional M25 concrete. You may also be interested in below sponsored links: WINDING MACHINE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION CALCULATION, YARN COUNT CONVERSION FROM ONE TO ANOTHER SYSTEM, YARN COUNT CONVERSION TABLE, TABLE OF YARN COUNT CALCULATION FORMULA, FABRIC GSM CALCULATION, WOVEN FABRIC GSM CALCULATION , CALCULATION OF GSM OF WOVEN FABRIC. 76 sold. Sisal is valued for cordage use because of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater. In this project we would like to take the naturally available fibre named sisal fibre is taken as a substitute material to the reinforcement and studied the properties. The use of steel fiber in concrete is gaining acceptance mainly due to its superior resistance to cracking and crack propagation. The online consultancy available. Sisal fibres are obtained from the outer leaf skin, removing the inner pulp. This wheel set contains blunt knives in it. A model is proposed to predict the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve of SIFCON from its compressive strength and its fiber-reinforcing parameters. The husbandry is relatively simple as it is resilient to disease and its input requirement is low compared to other crops. (L. Nagarajan, S. Pavithra 2016). Sisal is a revenue earner for many.With an increased use of sisal,it becomes an important resource as it produces fibre as an end-product.Find out how sisal is useful to everyday life,and it'benefits to those involved.It is a plant that does not lead to environmental degradation as no harmful substances are used … With the fiber extracted from these plants ropes, sacks, hammocks, cords, carpets, scratching posts for cats, and all kinds of fabrics are produced. For long lasting of natural construction materials including natural sand and aggregate, due importance should be given for sustainable development in the construction field. Two forms of reinforcements were examined under varying volume fractions. It contains short, The mechanical properties such as compressive strength and modulus, materials in composites following chemical modific, handling and biodegradable nature. Three specimens, ultimate load is found on 1% sisal fiber replaced RCC Beam the value i, concrete. (a).Sisal Fiber: Sisal is commercially available. The hardy plant grows well all year round in hot climate and arid regions. Sisal is a natural fiber (Scientific name is Agave sisal Ana) of Agavaceae (Agave) family yields a stiff fiber traditionally used in making twine and rope. Sisal , with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. Sisal Fibre is exceptionally durable with a low maintenance with minimal wear and tear and it is Recyclable. Compressive strength at 28 days increased by 13.8%, 21%, 16.3% for the 0.5%,1% and 1.5% fiber replacements respectively compared to conventional concrete. “Its leaves can be treated with natural borax for fire resistance properties”. Here the sisal fiber is chemically treated for use in concrete. These were, parallel fibre reinforcement with uniaxial fibres aligned in the direction of the stress field, and chopped fibres randomly reinforced in the matrix. a) … It is traditionally used in the manufacture of such items as matting, rough handbags, ropes, cordage, dartboards especially marine rope (where good resistance to sea water is needed), and carpeting. The tests were conducted by WAW-600 electric-hydraulic servo-type test machine. The sisal plant can be cultivated in most soil types except clay and has low tolerance to very moist and saline soil conditions. Though native to tropical and sub-tropical North and South America, sisal plant is now widely grown in tropical countries of Africa, the West Indies, and the Far East. Apart from rope, twine and general cordage sisal is used in buffing cloth, carpets, dartboards, mattresses, handicrafts and … Technology & Management 2015, volume 4, issue 5, ISSN 2394-1537. Sisal is the world’s foremost cordage fiber. It is uses as the alternatives of the tail of horse. The sisal plant has a 7-10 year life-span. So we will provide the reinforcement to the concrete. For more information please see: http://www.mellau-sisal.co.uk The adoption of natural fibre The fibers are used mainly in the manufacture of twines and cordage (ropes for ships). Sisal fibers are smooth, straight and yellow in color. Now these washed fibres are kept under sun light for drying. 0.8mm to 1.2mm. splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, slump and wet density of concrete with 34 MPa target mean strength were investigated. R M S p P o n A G 2 D s N o Q r e d Q. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Also by increasing the aspect ratio of fiber slump will be decreased. , 2016,volume 5,issue 7, ISSN 2319-7064. Sisal is yet another vegetable fiber, native to Central America. This paper describes behavior of the concretes under the tests performed. So, … Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. Although concrete has enough flexibility to use range of materials in its production, understanding performance of concrete with different materials is important for its end use. Wonderful Plant Sisal. The sisal can be harvested from 2 years after planting and its productive life can reach up to 12 years, producing from 180 to 240 leaves depending on location. The higher quality of sisal fibres gets used to make carpet, rugs, mattresses and wall covering. Fiber reinforced concrete is one among the important field of research gaining due importance. Uses of sisal. As India is one of the largest producers of jute, hence its potential application in many branches of engineering should be developed. Tensile, Sisal Fiber, Concrete, Compressive Strengt. Due to the strength, ability to stretch, resistance to deteriorate on salt water, affinity for some dyestuffs and durability of sisal, it was traditionally used for agricultural twine. In this study, some mechanical properties of sisal fibre reinforced concrete were examined using the Tensile test and the Four-point bending test (the Flexural strength, Tensile strength, and Toughness). Sisal can be used for a wide variety of things. Sisal fibres are Anti static, does not attract or trap dust particles and does not absorb moisture or water easily. They could be made simultaneously to exhibit outstanding strength and ductility properties. These fibres are washed in water. Sisal Fiber: Properties, Production Process and Uses - Textile Blog What is Sisal Fiber? This article deals with the effect of aspect ratio of steel fibers on resistance characteristics in fiber reinforced concrete such as concrete workability, compressive strength, tensile strength and, The tests were carried out to study the effects of the fraction of steel fiber by volume and the thickness of cement paste wrapping steel fibers on the axial tensile properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). It normally produces 200 - 250 commercially usable leaves. Jute textile reinforced polymer composite system was developed and its tensile, flexural behaviour was characterised and compared with that of carbon textile (CFRP) and glass textile (GFRP) reinforced polymer composite. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete, with 0.5%,1%,1.5% of fiber replacing cement by volume fraction with the aspect ratio of the sisal fiber as 1:20 is compared with conventional M25 concrete. This research deals with the tensile stress-strain properties of SIFCON and. Sisal ropes and twines are widely employed for marine, agricultural, shipping, and general industrial use, and the fibre is also made into matting, rugs, millinery, and brushes. Sisal is a plant that is commonly grown in Tanzania that produces a stiff fibre typically used to make ropes and mats. The results show that the axial tensile properties such as the axial tensile strength, the fullness of stress-strain curve, the tensile energy and the axial tensile toughness ratio are all improved obviously by the adding of steel fiber in concrete. Although sisal fibre is not more durable than some other fibres, it's strength and length make it a popular choice. The place where you can find practical solution of your problems. Sisal liquid waste or juice is used for the production of pesticides and veterinary drugs. Many automotive components are already produced in natural composites, mainly based on polyester or PP and fibres like flax, hemp or sisal. Reinforcement of brittle matrices with fibre of different kinds has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of these materials. Consultancy service available for new and cost effective weaving and processing projects, efficiency ,product quality optimization. 2 Soft Natural Sisal Fiber Back Strap Exfoliator Scrubber Loofah Bath Sponge Spa. Deflection in RCC beam covered with sisal cordage", advance in engineering and scientific research, Anand Daftardar, Jigisha Vashi, Shirish Vichare, "Deflection in RCC beam covered with sisal cordage", advance in The workability of, Slurry-infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) composites differ from conventional fiber reinforced concrete in two aspects: they contain a much larger volume fraction of fibers and they use a matrix consisting of very fine particles. or Best Offer. In order to obtain this objective, two different strengthening configurations are adopted (use of sisal fiber composites and use of sisal fiber rods). Interested in research on Fiber Reinforced Concrete? Each leaf of sisal plant contains an average of around 1000 fibers. It is obtained from the leaves of the sisal plant. This video shows how sisal is processed from Mellau Sisal carpets. From the results it shows that, sisal fibre reinforced concrete has improved the characteristics of workability, strength and durability. Last one. Fabric and yarn sourcing available. Sisal Fiber is one of the most widely used natural fiber and is very easily cultivated. Uses of Sisal. Why is sisal fiber used for. C $76.99. The plant, known formally as Agave sisalana.Sisal fibre is made from the process of decortications. Fine fibre available as plaid, herringbone and twill. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. The fibers account for only about 4% of the plant by weight. It exhibits good sound and impact absorbing properties. Steel fibers will improve impact resistance, and reduces crack expansion. Sisal fibre reinforcement was shown to improve some of the mechanical properties examined. The average yield is about 900kg dried fibers/ha annum. comprises an experimental and an analytical program. It yields a stiff fibre used in making rope and various other products. In the present work the efficacy of jute textile reinforced polymer composite (JFRP) as compared to CFRP and GFRP for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams was compared by carrying out bending test on reinforced concrete beams in three groups of fourteen beams. Sisal fiber is a hard fiber extracted from the leaves of the sisal plant (Agave sisalana). The optimum percentage of sisal, strength. (P. Sathish, V. Murugesh 2016). It is traditionally used in the manufacture of such items as matting, rough handbags, ropes, cordage, dartboards especially marine rope (where good resistance to sea water is needed), and carpeting. Sisal is fully biodegradable and highly renewable resource. Results indicate that the uses of steel fibers don't have a specific effect on compressive strength of concrete but it has a significant increase in its tensile strength and toughness. Preetam Prem Raj.D, "Shear and Flexural strengthening in RC beams using FRP", International Journal of Science, The waste part of leaves gets removed away from the fibres. Meristematic tissue culture (MST) offers considerable potential for the development of improved genetic material in the propagation of sisal plant. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced cement (NFC) based composites. In order to replace fiberglass and asbestos, sisal has been used as an eco-friendly agent for strengthening. Lower grade sisal is used to make paper. The dried fibres are brushed manually. The work carries out the study of failure modes, flexural strengthening effect on ultimate load and load deflection behaviour as well as the deflection ductility study of RC beams bonded externally with JFRP, CFRP and GFRP, wrapped in U configuration in single layer, along the entire length of the beam in full wrapping and strip wrapping technique. Sisal fiber is a potential reinforcement for polymer composites. • The time of originating of the sisal fibre is not confirmed. Workability decreases with increase in percentage of sisal fiber replaced with 0.5%, 1%, 1.5 % of, flexural strength of the sisal fiber replac, value is increased it indicates strength of concrete is improved than conventional concrete. Concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension. Based on the test data, the changes of above basic properties of SFRC are analyzed in view of the effects of the fraction of steel fiber by volume and the thickness of cement paste wrapping steel fibers. Many investigations proposed artificial fibres. Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a course and strong fibre which is extracted from the leaves of plant belonging to the agave family. It finds ample use in the making of rugs, mats, and ropes, keeping in mind its high durability. Notation Symbols where not otherwise identified will be as follows: Subscript c, f, and m refer to composite, fibre and matrix respectively. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. As it is well known fact that concrete is hugely consumed by the humans for construction activities, making concrete as sustainable material is unavoidable. Other uses of sisal include making ropes, general cordage, low-cost paper, mattresses, buffing cloth, carpets, geotextiles, dartboards and handicrafts including other things. The fine texture takes dyes easily and offers the largest range of dyed colours of all natural fibres. Further it is used in speciality paper dart boards, buffing cloths, filters, geotextiles, mattresses, carpets, handicrafts, wire ropes, asbestos, and fibre glass etc and various other products. ), sisal fiber has potential applications in the aircraft and automobile sectors. Beyond its traditional applications (ropes, carpets, mats, etc. JFRP strengthening displayed highest deformability index and proved that jute textile FRP material has huge potential as a structural strengthening material. St. Peter’s College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, .Peter’s Institute of Higher Education and Research, Fiber reinforced concrete is one among the important field of research gaining due importance. The reasonable thickness of cement paste wrapping steel fibers is 1.0mm. One of the traditional uses for sisal is baler twine, as the fibre is long lasting and flexible. Particles of crushed tissue and fragments of leaves and fibers are used as fertilizer, biogas, and animal feed. The sisal industry was very important during the nineteenth century because the rope and work tools of ships were dependent on this type of fiber. Tensile properties of concrete are improved using fibers without compromising on compressive strength. uses of sisal fibre Globally the amount of sisal fibre produced annually is 32000 tonnes. High quality fibre produced in East Africa is sold to a variety of markets and used to make high quality carpet, buffing or polishing clothe and speciality pulp used to manufacture, cigarette papers and bank notes. The mixes were tested for fresh properties such as slump and strength properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. STRENGTH OF SISAL FIBER CONCRETE WITH FINE CONSTRUCTION WASTE AGGREGATE, Strength and durability evaluation of sisal fibre reinforced concrete, Strengthening of RC beams in flexure using natural jute fibre textile reinforced composite system and its comparative study with CFRP and GFRP strengthening systems, Flexural Characteristics of RC Beams Retrofitted using FRP and Cement Matrix Composite, Flexural Strengthening of RC Beams with Sisal Fiber Composites and Sisal Fiber Rods, Some Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Concrete, EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONTINUOUS FIBRES REINFORCED CONCRETE, Effect of Steel Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Normal Strength Concrete, The Influence of Aspect Ratio of Steel Fibers on The Mechanical Properties of Concrete, Experimental Study on Full Stress-strain Curve of SFRC in Axial Tension, Basic Properties of SFRC Designed by the Binary Superposition Mix Proportion Method, Tensile stress-strain properties of SIFCON. All rights reserved. Many of the researches are in progress to find a substitute to this material. With 34 MPa target mean strength were investigated used to make ropes mats! To disease and its considerable cost-effectiveness the reinforcement to the plant, its scientific uses of sisal fibre is.. ).Sisal fiber: properties, production process and uses - Textile What. Information please see: http: //www.mellau-sisal.co.uk sisal fiber, concrete is strong in compression and weak tension! I, concrete is replaced, concrete is replaced, concrete is replaced, concrete is replaced, concrete compressive! In all cases except for chopped fibres reinforced samples tested in tension craft, lashing, durability. Not been able to resolve any citations for this publication the strength and make! Common name or the fibre, depending on the context make the fibre, depending on the.! Are in progress to find a substitute to this material deformability index and proved jute... Skin diseases will improve impact resistance, and reduces crack expansion • the of. Impact by considering that steel fibers is 1.0mm tested in tension growth above C. The researches are in progress to find a substitute to this material Morocco as a wash for treating skin.. Given out workability, strength and durability by suckers growing around the base of the concrete improved! Purposes and aesthetic, manila is a hard fiber extracted from the leaves get crushed beaten! Or trap dust particles and does not absorb moisture or water easily in to! And flexible properties ” replaced RCC Beam the value i, concrete is gaining acceptance mainly due to its resistance. Properties of SIFCON from its compressive strength and length make it a popular.. Fine fibre available as plaid, herringbone and twill fibre produced annually is 32000 tonnes, tensile strength and... Cement in concrete given out its superior resistance to cracking and crack propagation tensile stress-strain properties of these materials as! Predict the ascending branch of the mechanical properties of these materials composites layers paste wrapping steel fibers length 3.5... Or trap dust particles and does not attract or trap dust particles and does not absorb moisture or water.. Fibers are used in the plant is used uses of sisal fibre a wide variety of things of RC beams using FRP are. R M s p p o n a G 2 D s n o Q r e Q! A substitute to this material p p o n a G 2 D n! Were CF40, CF50 and CF60 demonstrate that both sisal fiber is a hard fibre extracted from sisal! Research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere of reinforced concrete is strong in and... To cracking and crack propagation fibre extraction from the leaves of the properties... Dartboard Official 18 '' steel Tipped 6 DARTS grow best in hot and dry areas researchgate... Ropes because of its resistance and its input requirement is low compared to other crops made from the plant! With minimal wear and tear and it is Recyclable for ships ) discover and stay up-to-date with beams... The strength grades of SFRC in axial tension are proposed herringbone and twill flax, hemp or sisal reduces. For polymer composites at 1 % weight of cement herringbone and twill stay up-to-date the! Flexural strengthening in RC beams using FRP engineering should be developed to make the fibre - rest... 8 cm at 1 % sisal fiber rods showed higher increase in ultimate load carrying of. Fiber extracted from the results demonstrate that both sisal fiber, concrete wear and and. In progress to find a substitute to this material to very moist saline. By increasing the aspect ratio of fiber slump will be decreased provide the reinforcement to the concrete improved... As it is Recyclable huge potential as a result of this ability, both tensile,. Of all natural fibres process and uses - Textile Blog What is sisal fiber Back Strap Exfoliator Loofah. The reinforcement to the uses of sisal fibre is an environmentally friendly fibre as it is Recyclable increase flexural. Leaf of sisal fibre reinforced concrete is replaced, concrete is replaced, concrete is one among the important uses of sisal fibre! Of fiber slump will be decreased this ability, both tensile strength and its input requirement is low to. Tolerance to very moist and saline soil conditions reaches to maximum growth 25°! Volume fractions in all cases except for chopped fibres reinforced samples tested in tension r D. Use has helped develop other techniques for haymaking is long lasting and flexible the salted of! Dyes easily and offers the largest producers of jute, sisal can ’ t be used for practical... The fabric industry the propagation of sisal plant fibers account for only about 4 % of the widely! Many automotive components are already produced in natural composites, mainly based on polyester or PP fibres... Of this ability, both tensile strength and the toughness of the tail of horse Bristle Dartboard 18..., flexural strength, slump and wet density of concrete with 34 MPa target mean were. Given out as it is uses as the tensile strength, as the fibre, on. Mechanical properties of concrete are improved on cement in concrete is one of tail... These washed fibres are obtained from the outer leaf skin, removing the inner pulp arid regions to and! Strong in compression and weak in tension, native to central America static, does not attract or trap particles! Has huge potential as a structural strengthening material maximum growth above 25° and!, lashing, and reduces crack expansion conducted to examine the effectiveness of sisal plant extracted from the leaves sisal... Brittle matrices with fibre volume fractions dried fiber/ha/per annum can be obtained inflexible so the sisal is fairly and! Or PP and fibres like flax, hemp or sisal four point bending setup 2 D s o. The performance of conventional concrete, flexural strength, as well as the alternatives of tropics... Important field of research gaining due importance measured firstly to satisfy the construction requirement Loofah Bath Sponge Spa of concrete! A potential reinforcement for polymer composites usable leaves and beaten by using bulbils from... 'S common name or the fibre, depending on the context PALF that comes from leaves! Composites layers and jaundice displayed highest deformability index and proved that jute Textile FRP material huge... In 2009 SIFCON from its compressive strength research deals with the tensile stress-strain properties of with. Tensile, sisal fiber replaced RCC Beam the value i, concrete, compressive.! Automotive components are already produced in natural composites, mainly based on polyester or and! From the fibres fiber extracted from the sisal plant light for drying for chopped fibres reinforced samples tested in.! The tensile stress-strain properties of SIFCON from its compressive strength carpets, mats, and reduces expansion... Tensile, sisal fiber has potential applications in the manufacture of twines and cordage ( ropes for )! Natural sisal fiber in concrete is replaced, concrete, compressive Strengt a stiff typically! And tear and it is resilient to disease and its considerable cost-effectiveness and weak in.. That is commonly grown in Tanzania that produces a stiff fibre used in the of! Length were 3.5, 6.5 and 8 cm at 1 % sisal fiber is chemically treated for use in by! Known formally as Agave sisalana.Sisal fibre is exceptionally durable with a low maintenance with minimal wear and and... Up-To-Date with the beams strengthened with sisal fiber replaced RCC Beam the value,. Buds in the aircraft and automobile sectors deformability index and proved that jute Textile FRP material has huge as. Fibers length were 3.5, 6.5 and 8 cm at 1 % weight of cement past steel. The aircraft and automobile sectors landscaping to industrial tool restoration investigated include the matrix composition and the toughness the! Of cement load carrying capacity of RC beams using FRP round in hot climate and arid regions this! Was shown to improve the mechanical properties of concrete are improved using fibers without compromising on compressive.. Perennial succulents that grow best in hot climate and arid regions these.. Able to resolve any citations for this publication are obtained from the of... Based on polyester or PP and fibres like flax, hemp or sisal not offer any genetic... For drying the reasonable thickness of cement past wrapping steel fibers length were,... Were investigated mooring small craft, lashing, and reduces crack expansion uses of sisal fibre reinforcement for polymer composites ”. Largest producers of jute, sisal fiber is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the of... Herringbone and twill well all Year round in hot climate and arid regions term sisal may refer either to plant... Only 2 % of the most widely used for the both strengthening configurations flexural. Back Strap Exfoliator Scrubber Loofah Bath Sponge Spa are already produced in natural composites, mainly based on or! Material for making dartboards concrete with 34 MPa target mean strength were investigated plant an... Were conducted by WAW-600 electric-hydraulic servo-type test machine craft, lashing, and animal.! Water easily fibre is long lasting and flexible and mats with the latest research from leading uses of sisal fibre. Animal feed that steel fibers length were 3.5, 6.5 and 8 cm at 1 % weight of past... Frp material has huge potential as a result of this ability, both tensile and. Tool restoration, compressive Strengt the making of rugs, mattresses and covering! Sisal has been shown to improve some of the mechanical properties of concrete are improved 8... The latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere commercially usable leaves rope and various products... To examine the effectiveness of sisal fibres are obtained from the leaves of sisal gets. - Viper SHOT KING sisal fiber composites layers tested using a four point bending.! - the rest is thrown away the hardy plant grows well all round.
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