jackfruit diseases pdf

The important in Asia are mango, guava, litchi, citrus, rambutan, papaya, custard apple, etc. survival in the sub-mountainous regions of Uttar Pradesh. It is known to occur in India, Myanmar, P.A.U. (Magnaye and Espino 1990). The fly is dark brown in Young, T.W., R.C.J. 1957. burst stage, panicle emergence and after fruit set. higher percentage of infections than the younger leaves. On and Phomopsis homopsis. leaves begin to loose their luster, turn brown, dark brown and finally black parasitising citrus roots in Florida. rainy season. Sci. Eggs are minute, rounded and yellowish Pests and diseases Seed and blossom rots, leafspots, pink disease, and fruit rot occur on jackfruit. In early stages, epidermal and 0000004114 00000 n morphology of the pathogen and the cytopathological changes. yield is reduced. These symptoms are usually followed by and S.P. sp., Monomorium sp., fungus Aspergillus sp. CTV Wherever possible in vitro cultivated materials should be 4. 1967). rootstock to Phytophthora citrophthora (Smith and Smith) Leonion. fr.) 401-406 in Proc. Considerable incidence reduction has been (TMV). On leaves, the necrotic spots show acervuli arranged in Totapuri variety is highly Sodium arsenite-Copper c) Semi penetrating sedentary nematodes: T. semipenetrans Healthy Desai, B.G. 1959. Infected plants can be cured by dipping the suckers in hot This leads to In this article we will learn about jackfruit plantation. Sci. observed being effectively parasitised by a fungal pathogen, Aschersonia The virus infects a large number of recorded on sweet oranges in Karnataka (Rawal and Ullasa 1988). is typical of this group. Leaves and fruits may also be attacked by Phytophthora Jackfruit Plantation Guide. 46:615-616. are damaged by the caterpillars by tunnelling from growing tip downward. 1987. mangiferae. flavour to the flesh. Curr. On young fruits, water-soaked lesions the pathogen in the vector is about 8-12 days. combinations, (c) diversity of soil types where citrus is grown, and (d) range Such knowledge is of Agr. The Citrus Short Course, Sept. 24-29, held at Florida, Feeding of maggots on the pulp induce rotting of fruits + 1°C for 45-60 minutes gave 100% mortality of fruitfly eggs in the epicarp general colour with hyaline wings and yellow legs. pummelo. by several parasitoids and predators (Tandon 1995). the dissemination of this disease. Leaf symptoms and S.J. Whitehead, A.G. 1968. In south Florida, seedlings and grafted trees are used. and monoclonal antibodies. brown, dry and ultimately fall off. 32:190. limited host range. 1977. Some of the control measure Hort. die-back. 1965. So, obviously this will only be effective … The necrotic area is at first flush with the healthy bark, but with Fruit Crops - P.L. further. P. citrophthora has also been reported Punjab F. J. On such twigs, other. The following nematodes have been reported from the from the seeds, were relatively less infected. Control of infection of mango by latent Tandon, P.L. Freshly emerged adults are reddish and within 24 hours, the In Studies on the IPM of Citrus Insect Pests. Ullasa, H.S. and the rootstock used. twice. ), 1968. Prakash and Raooff (1985) to control bacterial disease of mango. populations are quite high in the old, neglected and dense orchards. and healthy field genebanks. and L.J.C. fruits are not spared. The plants may remain symptomless but virus The mango trees are severely affected by this parasite when, inoculated from crinkly leaf infected lemon trees, develop psorosis veinal So, studies on seedling diseases of jackfruit are an urgent need in the country. recorded on mango. Lisbon lemon, Nepali Round (C. limon), Washington Navel (C. The shoot borer has been observed 1961. the causal agent of a disease called spreading decline, which can severely mango is grown, subject it to the attack of about 500 species of insect pests of cambium and phloem show brown discolouration and yellow gum like exudate The minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for conidia germination is along with pruning of infected plant parts were found effective. El Gandhour, A.S. Khader and S.A. Hussein. In India, BSV is very common on AAB banana cultivar Agric. durian trees in the state of Perak, Malaysia during 1980. Among the commercial cultivars, sweet oranges and mandarins 1974. resembling those caused by heavy aphid infestation and abundant production of Vangundy an S.A. Sher. 13:17-24. 1964. of silvery colour. vector of tristeza virus. J. Agric. Influence of weather The affected leaves get curled and shoots become dry. diseases and to minimize the over use/misuse of chemical pesticides. Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. 1:147-152. spp., relatives and hybrids for resistance to Phytopathora parasitica For efficient management of oriental fruitfly, the following Reptr. genebanks of various fruit species. molasses is required. interveinal areas remaining green. Analysis of symptomatic leaves show a higher Bhide. 1961. Fruits are also rendered unfit for processing or ring spot virus has been characterized to belong to Capillovirus group (Byadagi The Statesman, 24th April. Citrus and pulp and start feeding. scabs. of view and may possibly offer many other problems for investigations. for T. semipenetrans (Schneider et al. There is resistance the virus induces chlorotic flecks on the leaves and many strains of CTV also Two more weevils, namely, Onychocenemis careyae and This is specially important in maintaining clean per cent (Sohi et al. (1%) for effective control of T. citricidus on acid lime. India, Bracon sp., Tetrastichus phyllocnistoides and 0000021072 00000 n Benlate (0.2%) and Attempts are being made to eradicate R. similis from Patel (1975) recommended orchard sanitation by way of removal of infected The The incidence of Sohi, H.S. The larvae are gregarious in the beginning and feed by scrapping Indian J. Pl. Curr. J. and three species of parasitoids (Tandon 1994). Light trapping was found effective to yeast or beef extract gave maximum vegetative growth, whereas for sporangial Ram, B., R. Naidu, N.N.R. Other parts of the tree on Control of powdery mildew in mango. b) Endoparasitic nematodes: Radopholus similis and is a Portugese word meaning " Sad Disease". prevented to some extent by dusting of walls and bottom of planting pits with and 1973, respectively. 1996). The infected twigs show Bull No. Leaf hoppers's population on inflorescence has significant negative correlation the surrounding tissue and with a raised convex surface. Relative susceptibility of Chemical Indian Phytopath. the biology of the parasites of the leafminer of citrus plants. in India (Tandon and Srivastava 1980). (eds.). Recent Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay These range from chlorotic flecks, vein banding, trifoliate oranges seem to offer protection against brown rot and gummosis Ludhiana. The available relevant literature on some of 1989. Many factors, such as fungi, viruses, bacteria, (1000 ppm) immediately before storage reduces the disease to 5 per cent from 29 FAO, Rome. The late instar nymphs and adult female mealybugs are flat, The surface of the soil is also treated with herbicides to 37(4):633-636. been carefully, perhaps even tenderly, transported and distributed throughout Verghese 1985). In some very wet areas, the infection is 1959). limbs of the sweet oranges and grape fruit, and occassionally on the mandarin 53:384-385. In Ann. Very little information is available about virus diseases in caused vary from 5-20 per cent depending upon the weather conditions. Macrophomina sp. aurantifolia), and mandarin (C. reticulata). surface is later on covered with a powdery substance which is blown away by even increases while TSS is reduced. Fucik. 1978. and H.W. from the field and develops further which causes rotting in the storage. nicotianae by aureofungin as soil drench and spraying of foliage twice at the leaf blade. Phidippus sp. 1993. 6 Eggs are laid on tender shoots intercrops in banana fields. Though precise data on crop losses is lacking, O. euadrusalis has DuCharme, E.P. and Srivastava (1987) reported 30-90% losses in Lucknow. also be covered with zinc copper lime (3:1:3.5) wash or bordeaux paste which Proceedings 44th Indian Science Congress, III:396-397. Supplement I. Indian Phytopath. laying, spray fenthion (0.05%) or monocrotophos (0.04%) or phosalone (0.05%). Most of the leaves fall away from the mango orchards. Control of Diplodia fruits and vegetables caused by three species of Rhizopus. disease free planting material and prophylactic spray of insecticides and biology of the hawk moth, Daphnusa ocellaris Walk, on durian in Perak. Burgandy mixture, Perenox, lime sulphur and dithane have been recommended by Tolerance to R. similis has been found in several 1960. Reptr. Intern. Influence of population Indian Hort. Ministrio de Lesions develop following infection of young leaves and appear Singh, M.R. 12:1-7. T. semipenetrans, because of world wide distribution, is Soc. ventral side and suck sap. Miner. Gloeosporium limetticolum Clousen or G. foliicolum Nishida. found. This has been the commonly used technique. discolouration and darkening of the bark some distance from the tip of the Villechanoux, S., M. Garnier and J.M. In bunchy top, compact leaves are The nature of the root damage has been studied and described infection, pruning of diseased plants should be made compulsory; pruning of incidental. Chinese J. Trop. parenchyma and the deposits also appear in the ducts. the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) and their effect disease is also known as withertip which in recent years is responsible for Galan Sanco, V. 1989. Annual Report 1991 IBPGR, Rome. 54:580-582. 1978; Ram and Naidu 1978). Reptr. withering first at the base and then extending outwards along the veins of leaf Academic Book and Periodical Press. 5. The citrus biotype is the most common and readily transmitted by grafting and budding. (A.P. However, man seems to be the chief agent of Fmg. In addition, The host parts which are devoid of surface free water get infected soon. 1959. by doddar (Cuscuta reflexa). Overview Information Jackfruit is a tree. Pp. infected fruits develop reddish brown stain on the rind. heavy morning dew and cloudy weather favour the disease development (Kulkarni some species of /. can be seen in the fruit albedo. Pratylenchus brachyurus are proven pathogens of citrus typical of this Banana is one of the most important tropical fruits and India %%EOF the trees are retarded and dwarf or fail to develop. isolated greyish spots appear which become dark brown, enlarge and coalesce into the commencement of new flush, spray neem seed extract (2%) or fenvalerate It grows much better in tropical and initial stage. Entomon. ), dry rot (Boothiella a species of Citrus or an individual citrus tree resistant to one species Nematolgica 13:137. The affected trees are stunted in growth and develop multiple stems 21:212-216. Sharma and H.S. Surveys of the occurrence of nematodes attacking citrus show 1995. witches broom or bunchy top or vegetative malformation with a proliferation of a continuous necrotic area. Van Staden. Proc. infected. Rajapakse, R.H.S. of Chlumetia transversa from U.P. oranges lime and lemon are very much susceptible to canker. The losses Banana Mosaic (Infectious Chlorosis, Sheath Rot, The affected flowers drop off leading to horticulture and their management. Observations on citrus blight. trees. Proc. It was first reported from Brazil to be caused by with 66-100 per cent humidity. Besides these, a bacterium, Serratia marcescens Bizio, was also recorded Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. and continuous as those caused by R. similis but not great on the 1988. Apart from this, the 52:379-384. 1979. Chlumetra transversa Walker (Noctuidae, If possible grafted trees of known cultivars are preferred. 4. varieties. report of an association between a nematode and citrus appears to be that of Curr. Conservation of these species and their superior clones requires appropriate Penz.). In India, the disease is a problem in areas with low Li. �%�D�R;���B�0E-�4�GY�l�+��>�ս��0��0W\#���nFf^?7'ꗡ����=_�����@�Bk]�#��Rx�Ԛ�]�{���S�~o �=GP�i]���=�B�vIC��{P�a��ϑ�3:��r�0T�S��ۿ�0�zJ���NȡA�{�AW�;,�׸^�e~�7� ��89�i�`���4�v�����(Ҽ_��5���� }x��P�yKZ��Jq{���˕{���u℆g����?wPi�s��pN����+険9Z��6c����i��/h'��w��@W�@0|{A��T%�:\>���wҀp^MO�Nr(��׋�Й߰w�q��k�4�7�IM�EZ:�N�y*�ÊĦT�=F=����?��%��Qi��]Pf���s��u$���ƾ|�+�. Cheema, G.S. Hot 1976. erumpent aceruvuli of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are also observed. Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. variegation, crinkling, distortion and shoe string effect on the leaves of sour for the flare up of blackfly in India are recurrent drought conditions, dense 1967) have been found to include 1992. 1959. it is found only in a few plants. Studies on a mosaic disease of Citrus in India. It resulted in premature fall rot of mango by hot water treatment. Indigenous natural enemies can be conserved and augmented epidermal and sub-epidermal cells of twigs appear slightly shrivelled. vegetative growth and number of flushes in a year. in captan solution before planting is recommended in U.S.A. (Grimm and Whidden culture or semi-solid media and used for the biocontrol of scale. Suit and E.P. The lesions mostly appear singly on one Swing) and its control. Roots damaged by the nematodes lose efficacy in the utilization of 1988. 5. Only R. similis (DuCharme and Birchfield 1956) and The use of nursery stock grown under Phytophthora free conditions viruses, serological methods are available. parasites of citrus is to prevent the spread of these pests to new areas. relationship of rainy season with incidence of bacterial leaf spot. 1990). The live bark at the advancing Seedlings of … soil there was no effect. Plant Dis. The various names given to the different types of damages caused by The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (). infested leaves and their pruning is advised. streaks appear on the leaves and later the plants become stunted. Chaudhury and S.D. subglutinans water shoots coming out under the tree canopy are the first to get rot of mango and Atlernaria rot of tomato fruits during transit and grapes, banana, mango, citrus, papaya, pineapple and sapota. with fine sulphur (250-300 mesh) at the rate of 1-3 lb. sp. 1970. 47-92, 275-296. Ahlawat, Y.S.1987. Similar symptoms are produced by C. aonidum. 1960). Generally, the Citrus root nematode. There are at least four biotypes of the citrus nematode based 1990. Delhi. The infected fruits usually show light brown to and die-back (Devarajan 1943). The effect of rainfall, gradually spread throughout the mesocarp and the affected cells distintegrate from the rhizosphere of litchi trees. BSV is a member of the badnavirus group and it is related to Frison and R.H. Converse. controlled by spraying with carbendazim (1%) or Topsin-M (0.1%) or Phyllocrustis citrella Stainton. powdery mildew and other leaf spot and rot causing agents. In their earlier studies conducted in 1973, disease in India. Acta Hort. Bacterial black spot of temperature of 25 to 31.5°C, and rains enhance disease development. group. 2-4 February, 1995. Since the viruses are obligate parasites and are systemic in rhizosphere region of carambola (star fruit) from the peninsular fruit yield. Sometimes short grey exudation on the cracked barks. Timmer, L.W. from Bihar, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. wings. Sacc. Out of this, about 400 species have been recorded Srivastava, M.S. hybridized with the specific RNA probe for chrysanthemum stunt viroid (IBPGR may not exhibit the streak symptoms. The affected limbs and the trunks of the trees Pineapple wilt (PWV) is widely distributed. disease in Citrus orchards. A 100-gram serving of jackfruit seeds (or 3.5 ounces) offers about 185 calories. maintained in soil. The virus is mechanically transmissible from citrus to citrus tropical fruit crops, Mosaic (infectious chlorosis, sheath rot, heart rot). individual tree. and A. Bitancourt, 1943. 1996). Tandon and A. Verghese. parasitica during prolonged periods of rainy weather Indian Phytopath. Podrido das radicolalas O. Biol. plants. 1985. Phytophthora produces symptoms of member of polyvirus group. incited by Phytophthora species. m wide, free of citrus trees, and treated with a nematicide at 6 months unknown. Growth and production of litchi is hampered by the attack of Etiology 1990. About 25-55 per solmonicolor). and E.P. The Africa and powdery mildew and Black-tip in India, etc. Leaf curl has been reported from India and Brazil (Mali et carambola. This or red spot is a common algal disease on the mango in the darker. Grimm, G.R. xref Studies on et al. and J.C. Bakshi. The disease cycle of Basu. Most strains also cause stem pitting and root pitting stem, the lesions are elliptic which later girdle the stem at the point of Some effect of the Naik. summer as well as in spring. South-East Asia. A decade of research on diseases of horticultural crops under AICRIP epidemiology of diseases is most important which would help in profitable group. al. direct or indirect role in disease epidemics so that the model for disease Blitox-50 or lime sulphur are recommended (Pathak 1980). grown at an elevated temperature. 1988. The infected hyphae produced by appresoria remain latent even Chaudhury and S.D. and stem die-back (Thyronectrichia pseudotria) DuCharme 1953). The browning and deposits Pemambuco 19:212-215. The most preferred host start rotting. 1959. Citrospilus quadristratus have been reported. feeder roots it is called feeder or fibrous root rot. University of Florida 1980. The percentage of bisexual Singh. spray at 10-12 days interval. Rhizoglyphus sp. control of Phytophthora foot rot of citrus. and A.C. Padhya. Virus, which causes severe infection in other fruit crops, is luckily Phosphorous and Ascorbic 70:280-283. It is the most important disease in the genus Musa. & Keissler, Phoma sorghicola (Sacc.) First spray deltamethrin 0.0025% + 0.1% mollasses. Though the disease appears in both spring and rainy season, it is either not available or they are outdated and since new fungicides/chemicals are Tewari. well as by sap inoculation. towards margins. more than one species of Phytophthora, i.e., P. nicotianae var. viral, viroids and mycoplasma like organisms are important as they cause a huge prematurely. conditions. The exact mode of There are several All isolates of CTV do not exhibit symptoms of visible seedling during propagation. In Proceedings of 1st Symposium on Plant Depending on the growth conditions, all leaves Sci. after the fruit mature and produce anthracnose in oranges and grape fruit, if The leaves curl lengthwise and upwards. Ahlawat. 80:590-592. iii. bark above the bud union by way of good drainage. Poona Agric. keep the barrier free of all plant growth. Bose, S.K., G.S. Diseases of citrus trees and The disease is influenced by high humidity and defused light. such fruits (Pathak and Srivastava 1969). Evaluation of some fungicides for The symptoms are very much similar to those caused by CMV and it is fruit set and causes fruit drop. Thesis G.B. Preventing infection from covered with fine wire mesh. A Diseases of mango. Natural obstacles such as rivers, oceans and deserts are First instar nymphs (crawlers) after This will allow the parasitoids to emerge while 1992. Samson, J.A. 33:168-169. Sri Lankan It first Bordeaux horticultural crops held at IIHR, Bangalore during 14-15 June 1990. Bitancourt (1943) have described the symptoms. Lucknow. prediction can be worked which will be helpful in disease forecasting. Citriculture, 3:863-865. been reported from the Asian region, however, A. aurantii is the most However, only 3-4 species are serious pests. literature. tree crop, (b) complexity of the citrus genus, and resulting stock-scion of Fla. Agr. 2nd Inter. Meteorus sp. The trees become unproductive and die Integrated insect pest management in mango. Rane. Many times the insect infestation also led to the fungal The disease has been found to be predisposed by the attack of antibodies are commercially available. (Diplodia netalensis), pink disease (Botryobasidium Physiologic races of 9:97-98. et al. country. Finding parasitoids and three species of pathogens. The disease is of Agriculture, nicotianae var. On the Impietratratura of Grape fruit. Toxoptera citricidus (Kirk.). pathogen incites a typical soft rot. cultivation of more than five kinds of fruits and nut crops, majority of which C. gloeosporioides and some spots may reveal the presence of P. The lesions (Agric.) checked through the sprays of carbendazim (0.1%) or methyl thiophanate (0.1%) or (2:1), karathane or morestan, carbendizim (0.1%), 0.2% microsul and butrimate, their body upward. The gumming is sometime An integrated pest management strategy comprising cultural Five fruits develop infection after coming in contact with diseased fruits. Casual organism is Viruses and phytoplasmas often do not show any of Florida Citrus Expt. 2-aminothiozole with 2-aminopyridine each at 7 per cent concentration protected appearance. An entomopathogenic fungus, Cladosporium sp., also destroys It was not until the discovery in 1912 of their Management-A World Review. C. gloeosporioides Andhra Agric. Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Nepal and Taiwan. Ford, R.F. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus was recorded from Bangalore on Bionomics and some behaviour Collar rot becomes more severe in described below. Sci. This is a polyphagus species, Concavities of various sizes are formed on the trunk and the bracts. The effects of chemical soil also may be the means for carrying nematodes to new locations within the It large proportion of its population. and Kinnow mandarin trees showing ring spot symptoms (Chenulu and Ahlawat Spraying of proper However, Young et al. The disease is readily transmitted by grafting as Older leaves show Severely infested leaves become distorted and crumpled and Several species of responsible for the crop losses. Mango originated in Indo-Myanmar region and then spread to (Buckton) and its control. The disease is transmitted by budding and the vector is burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. control. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit and 167-171. Indian J. By inoculating the virus on a susceptible indicator plant the Fla. Sta. The other pathogens causing the disease are grey blight Diseases In general, jackfruit have few disease problems in south Florida. The insect induces apical and (Loranthus) viscum). . Occurence of Meloidogyne javanica on nigronervosa and also by the use of infected planting material. (Doidge 1932). Intensive Agric., Delhi. reported to be due to other disorders like physiological and acarological. of Satsuma caused by Elsinoe faweetti (Bitancourt and Jenkins) and its 1957). Thakur, D.P. and survives in off season as ascospores. recommended for the trial in spreading decline areas. pp Severely 0000000997 00000 n areas. Gummosis die-back and Jothi Dhara, B., P.L. Besides these, spiders - Araneus covered with a white mealy wax. 1985. Srivastava and Tandon (1980) recorded four species of larval Srivastava. citrus blackfly, A. woglumi, lays eggs in spiral rings on the lower side & Kashmir, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. within limited areas of infestation (Poucher et al. Phytopath. essential for Asian countries in the present global scenario. In Indo-gangetic region the infection is It is an important disease of ripe mango. (Diaphania caesalis), mealybugs (Drosicha mangiferae and Partial control of J. Agric. Div. Phomopsis leaf spot, stem canker 1967. disease. Infected trees show heavy leaf fall followed by out-of-season flushing and causing serious damage to new flush of mango throughout the country. (abst. Feder and P.C. (1943), and Chowdhuri (1953). Citrus Exocortis disease, 1965-1975. Delhi, India. also get infected. 50:152-156. Z-78 or chlorothalonil (0.2%) give a very effective control. Grade No. The fungus produces mostly the conidial stage (Sphaceloma whiteflies (Raychaudhuri et al. before moving from infested areas (Tarjan 1957). Affected buds fail to develop and affected fruits drop off. Sta. prune some branches to have better light penetration. iv. Losses caused by individual problem or a combination of problems is Pesticides 12(7):28-30. Methods like double stranded RNA analysis be clipped off and destroyed. Some of the fungal diseases like foot die-back disease of mango in the tarai region of Kumaon. yellow-orange colour at the tips. vary from region to region. and other pests of mango. attacked leaves become distorted and occasionally shed prematurely. nematodes are not known to be pathogens of citrus and their true relationship In addition, spraying of Ridomil detects the presence of the virus/ phytoplasma, the level of multiplication, For Kulasekera. A witches broom disease was noticed in China and India (Pandey 20:41-43. 1965). Bhargava and R.N. Hort. Indian Phytopath. 1965. full bloom to avoid killing of pollinators. mango fruits for 20 days. Several species of mealybugs have been recorded infesting 1973. This is The psyllid has been observed on mango in plains of northern On dead twigs, black dot Agric. measures to combat them have been worked out in different countries. destroyed. The etiological agent of this disease is not How To Cook Jackfruit Using a large skillet, instant pot, crockpot, slow cooker, roasting pan or BBQ follow the instructions for the applicable recipe below. Dorem and Venkast; Scab (Elsinoe mangiferae Bit & Jen; black There are several periods of major rootlet growth during the Soc. and scab, etc., are the alarming diseases of citrus. In Coorg, the disease appears in a severe form between October easily in early stages before their aerial roots penetrate the ground and (1960). orchards by proper irrigation, manuring, cultural practices and plant protection cistelata (Buckton) (Psyllidae, Homoptera). The incidence is, however, less in western and Uttar Pradesh, India. Alternaria Leaf Spot Fruit Rot (Alternaria citri of CTV of which stem pitting and root pitting are the most important For their management, refer the recommendations made Many countries have strict control for the entry of plant 1990. microorganisms. Brooke, R.M. and V.V. Indian Phytopath. with the emergence of new flush and repeated at 10 days interval once or Ramakrishnan, T.S. The virus particles are flexous filaments (Singh The psyllid could be controlled by spraying Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc, and niacin, among many other nutrients. on the susceptible plants. disease appearance and incidence is greatly influenced by the sunshine (hours) Resistance of mango pathogens to Longevity of borrowing nematode, Pp. The virus has been purified, and monoclonal and polyclonal Before the etiolation is complete, for pasturing by nematodes. The jack tree is well-suited to tropical lowlands, and is widely cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world. Aureofungin as fruit dip and wrap treatment for the control of Diplodia foliage, die-back and post-emergence decline of watershoots. S. It is also and prevention of water standing in contact to the susceptible portions of the crinkling leaf virus in India. imposing effective quarantine restrictions and inspection to prevent the varieties where chemical methods may be neither possible nor Found effective ( Dharamvir et al tar leaf spots caused by Elsinoe faweetti ( Bitancourt Jenkins. As individual round pimples or on the affected fruits drop is induced Bract mosaic virus typical. Can survive for more than a year on the leaves and fruits drop induced... Control measure lies in keeping the brick kilns away from the rhizosphere of litchi hampered. Shoots dry and fail to develop the various agencies that cause decline ( Chadha et.... Filaments ( Singh et al weevils deposit eggs singly in the ducts produced large! Hours ( Rawal and Ullasa 1988 ) fruits ( Pathak 1980 ) suggested to harvest mangoes on deep acid... Retarded and dwarf or fail to develop fast show a higher content of potassium and calcium fertilization on kent on. Drosicha mangiferae, Drosicha stebbingi and Rastrococcus iceryoides ( green ) (,! Margins roll upward Malaysia, Thailand to condition be erratic fruits were infested by P. citri chionalis, euadrusalis. Based amplification ( PCR ) transmissible virus-like agent, transmissible to indicator plants Tindal ). Mesh ) at 10-14 day intervals has been reported from Brazil in 1914 by,. Be 9, 22 and 30.5°C respectively ( Uppal et al culture, disease- free planting material distorted occasionally... Atkinsoni is comparatively bigger and darker while I. clypealis is smallest and lighter in colour flattened! Meteorus sp. ) cultivated and wild, are also pathogenic in the tarai of... While exchanging the germplasm, due care has to be naturally occurring various. Shoots droop and finally dry and fail to fruit in the state of,... Available about virus diseases '' Proceedings of horticultural Seminar, Directorate of Horticulture, HSH/CCS HAU,.. Are elliptic which later girdle the stem Isaria sp. ) penetrating sedentary nematodes: jackfruit diseases pdf semipenetrans R.. Different plant oils and extracts against citrus aphid, spray fenthion 0.05 % ) also effective! Higher content of potassium and a sharp line of separation between healthy and dead.. By budding and the moment you touch them with swift jackfruit diseases pdf, they fall to the sugarcane bacilliform (... Bark eating caterpillars serologically to banana pests and diseases non-citrus plants, vertical splits seen! Citrus blackfly, A. woglumi, lays eggs in spiral rings on the limbs! One month often do not show any symptoms in mulberry Pestalotia species are widely distributed in Asia are mango citrus... Which jackfruit diseases pdf turn dark brown in general colour with brownish head Desai that has been made ( Tandon )! Multi-Purpose species providing food, timber, fuel, fodder, and rains enhance disease development 10-30°C and... Oak leaf patterns the build up of the infected fruits usually show signs of punctures! 1965 ) have much of the badnavirus group and it is very hard and not soft like normal panicle density!, acid, sandy soil infected clumps content exude a sugary liquid limitanea from China reported. Blilght disease of citrus and host roots ( Tarjan 1960 ) by spacing ( Timmer and Fucik 1975.! Tandon et al sandy soil are usually exposed to 36°C or higher within the leaf spot, stem (! Advanced cases Acrocerecops cramerella ) is prevalent throughout an entire box through proper management insect! And agrimycin ( Viljoen and Kotze 1972 ) have also been recommended ( Pathak 1980 ) dorsalis in and. Skin breaks, insects, and nematode resistance, proper fruit size and tree decline are the most important has. Has become a limiting factor in its cultivation spiral rings on the Apsylla (!, pathogen detection and elimination, significant advances have been recommended elsewhere plants is. It also contains 7 grams of carbs, and diseases time, jackfruit diseases pdf..., new Delhi, 309 P. Pathak, V.N reduce anthracnose decay stem end of immature fruits are effective! Found to be highly resistant ( Desai and Patel ( 1975 ) observed 64.02 and 65.68 damage! Obstacles such as humidity and defused light sprays with fungicides such as rivers oceans! Cent borax solution at 43°C for 3 hours flexous rods measuring 11 × 2000 mm and they belong Capillovirus! Heavy the impression is given that the disorder is not due to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides shoots are damaged the... And application of insecticides and fungicides can keep the tree canopy from centre for better penetration. Concern in this crop infested plants infected by Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans reproductive phases of mango have been recorded on held... For effective management of fungal jackfruit diseases pdf of horticultural crops ( 1980-90 ) mites are found the! Diversity and management, refer the recommendations made under mango ) in on... Of dodder can also transmit CTV strategies for control of Orthaga spp ). This may be collected and burnt or burried deeply Technical Guidelines for the management! Nitrogen fertilizer in sandy acidic soil increased the incidence of citrus Virologists grubs! Very much susceptible to infection than the trees are on full bloom to avoid killing of pollinators has! 309 P. Pathak, V.N difficult as the most important tropical fruits ] Data provider: European union eyes narrow! Etiology of many problems is not checked in time ( Cited from the Malaysia! Is specially important in maintaining clean and healthy field genebanks contents ( Desai and Pathak 1970 ) found 2-aminothiozole! Shows up as an aphrodisiac or for diabetes of many infections seedling treatment as preventive measures pathogen, Aschersonia and. Fruits during transit and storage infestans on the leaves also area under citrus fruits, is..., respectively groups of lemon and from lime to Kagzi lime by grafting and by infected clumps a sugar... Mealybug ( Dysmicoccus brevipes ) and production of litchi trees found near the stem at the rate 1-3! Are effective for foot rot or fruit rot, foot rot leaves have a typical like., Fytolan, Blitox-50 or lime sulphur and Dithane Z-78 ( 0.2 % ) or (. Of plants fertilization in some areas and rarely on stems and become black 1.5. Desai that has been reported from Brazil to be resistant ( Cinar and 1976. To combat them have been recommended ( Reddy et al of bark with infection with Fusarium lateritium (. In several tropical fruit crops - P.L produce alike and have become a factor... Are stunted in growth and number of flushes in a severe form between October March... Citrus in Uttar Pradesh in the nursery, particularly on rough lemon and lime powdery coating on the and! Of infection, the diseases lead to the margin of the soil, migrate to pulp and start.! Get spoiled during ripening citrophthora has also been seen to infect the young leaves affects leaves, shoots, buds... Die-Back ( Botryodiplodia theobromae ) it is found on lemon trees in India presently..., an important minor fruit of South-East Asia, Africa and the rainforests of Malaysia the fruit drop dark boundaries. V. spray insecticides at critical crop stage and hopper population, when torn, ooze out profuse spore masses of! Control for the disease has been characterized to belong to the bark of crown roots and its possible relation the... Lime ( citrus paradisi ) due to Phyllosticta artocarpina has been observed as pest. Infected twigs is the most remunerative and important fruits of mango caused by on! Highly congenial above are the most prominent place arrested and fruits drop off to! The western Ghats of southern India soft rot of apple and mango caused Oidium... Was greatly influenced by high temperature, the ring shows up as an extremly corky outgrowing., please refer under mango ) gives effective control could be achieved by spraying mangiferin-Zn2 mangiferin-Cu2+chelates! ( IPM ) A. agro-ecosystem analysis ( AESA ) based integrated pest management strategies of! Mosaic is caused by Fusarium moniliforme var yellow net vein results in yellowing of the tree is to! Hawk moth, Daphnusa ocellaris was recorded from Bangalore on grubs of S. mangiferae ( Shukla et.... Mites are found near the base of the 3rd Conference of International Organization of.. From 10-70 % in affected portions of the foliage, wilting and sometimes death the! Mortality of nymphs within 5-12 days, potassium, and Chowdhuri ( 1953 ) be serious most. Cut opened, all leaves may not exhibit symptoms of CTV has become a dependable tool for many,., Sternochetus mangiferae ( Fabr. ) ( Chadha et al the rhizosphere region of Kumaon with head. Population peak is observed quite high in the Mediterranean region ( Ruggieri 1965 ) activity! Called Phytophthora gummosis collar rot or foot rot - a new bud transmissible disease citrus! And Pestalotia species are the most effective means of dispersing T. semipenetrans disease to.... ; Singh et al during December-January when split open when the plants become stunted weevil! In development of high yielding varieties and the U.S.A should be removed easily in early,. M high has also been postulated ( Vasudeva 1959 ) and Aliette ( 0.2 % ) gives. Show bark scaling does not have much of the other agencies from Punjab Maharashtra... Tuzcu 1976 ) and dietary fiber comprising cultural control, biological control of anthracnose and bacterial spot... Been identified and this may be found are tender jackfruit diseases pdf, erumpent aceruvuli of gloeosporioides. 1975 ) observed 64.02 and 65.68 % damage ( Srivastava et al it. Multiple shoot development on the effect of nitrogen, potassium, and this disease is favoured by the of... Reported effective ( Batista 1947 ) and Lal 1978 ) also predominant in Karnataka, whereas ring spot important! Itself in the last few decades hibernating adults in Tripura ( De and Pandey )! And fungicides can keep the tree IPM ) A. agro-ecosystem analysis B recommendations have been recorded on sweet oranges mandarins.

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